The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. Located in southern Europe, it is landlocked by Italy, and is one of the European microstates.
San Marino is an enclave in Italy, on the border between the regioni of Emilia-Romagna and Marche. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines mountain range, and it has a rugged terrain. The highest point in the country, Monte Titano, is situated at 749 m above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size. The climate is Mediterranean, with warm summers and mild winters. San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, with only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.
San Marino claims to be the world's oldest republic still in existence, being founded in A.D. 301 by a skilled builder referred to as St. Marinus. Its written constitution was adopted on October 8, 1600. The tiny nation was recognised by Napoleon's France in 1797, and by the other European nations at the 1815 Congress of Vienna.
Although a sovereign nation, it is strongly dependent on Italy, by which it has been completely surrounded since that country's unification in the 19th century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi was unifying Italy in the 1860's and took refuge from his enemies in San Marino. There he got aid and money and supplies to continue his campaign for unification from San Marino citizens and leaders. In return, Garibaldi guaranteed that San Marino would always be an independent sovereign state.